Utilization of Hydropower and Solar Energy to Generate Electricity as Solution of Electricity Production Decrease as Extreme ENSO Impacts

El Nino is the phenomenon where western of Pacific Ocean is warmer than the eastern one. It will raise the air parcel over western of Pacific Ocean and Indonesia. Air parcel with moisture will move eastward to the west coast of South America. On the other hand, when eastern Pacific and west coast of South America is warmer, air parcel will raise and move toward Indonesia and its neighboring countries.

Major impacts of ENSO are changing in temperature and depth of rainfall. Indonesia which is located in eastern Pacific Ocean is highly affected by ENSO.  El Nino bring the moisture from Indonesia to the western America so that there will be much precipitation on the west coast of South America. Inversely, Indonesia is dryer and the temperature is higher because of less cloud present. In the event of La Nina, Indonesia is much wet because of high intensity of rainfall. Western America is dryer and warmer because of lack of water moisture and high solar radiation.

Indonesia which is mountainous has high potential of water energy. The water flows downward from the high place and brings the potential energy. Then it can be utilized by converting it into electricity. Now days, Indonesia provides many hydro powers to generate electricity. At the moment of El Nino its potential decreases because of lack of water. Conversely, it will be greater in the La Nina event when there will be much water.

Beside of mountainous, Indonesia is also tropical country. It receives solar radiation all year. El Nino affects it by reducing cloud so that the length of radiation will be longer and cumulative solar radiation will be higher. La Nina where is high intensity of rainfall present will reduce the potential of solar energy.Actually, Indonesia which has potential of both hydropower and solar energy potentially utilizes them in consideration with ENSO impact. Hydropower is more potential to be developed in Indonesia compared with solar energy. Its potential is high in La Nina event and low in El Nino event so that it can be supported by energy from solar radiation which is more potential in El Nino event.

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