Today, the old controversial issue of climate change has become a real issue. Climate change is the world society problem because of its impact which affects various sectors in the whole world. Climate change triggers extreme weather to be more regular and stronger. A few months ago, Europe and America had been stricken by winter storm which obstructed daily activity and community economy. In Australia, snow had fallen in summer season. In Indonesia, it has occurred seasonal sifting which harmed Indonesian farmers because they had problem in determining harvesting and cropping phase.
Carbon dioxide is one of gas which highly contribute to increase green house effect which then causing climate change. Carbon dioxide measurement in Mauna Loa showed significant increase of carbon dioxide in atmosphere since 1958. Increasing of carbon dioxide also correspondences with increasing of global temperature. One of carbon dioxide emitter comes from energy based fossil fuel. Today, technology of fossil fuel based energy is not environmentally friendly so that potentially causing environmental degradation.
Indonesian Government has a commitment which was expressed in a Presidential Decree No. 5 announced in 2006, which set the direction for our National Energy policies. This target will be reached by creating an enabling environment, in which both private (including civil society organizations) and public sector organizations have the mandate, right and responsibility to work on actual undertakings to achieve these targets. In July 2002, General Directorate of Electricity and Energy Utilization had promoted green energy which is unification of renewable energy, efficient energy and clean energy to create sustainable development.
Indonesia which has much of natural resources potentially supplies some alternative energy to mitigate climate change impacts. Solar, water, and wind are some energy available which will not pollute the environment.
Solar energy always present in Indonesia because Indonesia is tropical country. Much of solar energy is available in Indonesia so that it can be utilized by using solar panel to generate electricity.
Actually, in all provinces in Indonesia could be built hydroelectricity. It could be held because most of the Indonesian land has surface water as rivers or lakes. Potential of energy from hydropower is high enough so that Indonesian Government should develop this technology.
Wind energy potential in Indonesia is smaller than other renewable energy. This is caused by inconstant wind velocity flows over Indonesia. Some places which have good potential of wind energy are Southern coast Java Island, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nusa Tenggara barat, and Merauke. Overall, wind energy only generates small energy, but Indonesian Government still improves wind energy technology by SKEA program.